Epidemiological studies of suicide and intervention studies in selected risk groups. Morato
Additionally, there is a need for longitudinal and more complex methodologies to investigate the transactional nature of these factors. Overall, results indicate that previous pain behavior positively predicts child anticipatory distress.
Precipitating Factors ... community psychologists can intervene or develop a prevention program, whether it be primary, secondary or tertiary, they must understand the factors that influence the commencement of drug use in youth and understand the risk factors they may contribute to later drug abuse. The overall risk of bias is unclear, reducing our confidence in these findings. J. P. T.
Environmental factors (15 different studies; Copyright © 2020 Society of Pediatric Psychology. Mayes
Retrieved from, Survey of the prevalence of immunization non-compliance due to needle fears in children and adults, Conditioning and hyperalgesia in newborns exposed to repeated heel lances, Information-seeking coping and anxiety in school-age children anticipating surgery, A prospective study of dental anxiety in a cohort of children followed from 5 to 9 years of age, Emotional states of mothers and behavior of the child during minor surgery, Role of anticipatory anxiety and anxiety sensitivity in children's and adolescents' laboratory pain responses, Children's distress in anticipation of radiation therapy procedures, The developmental psychopathology of anxiety, Handbook of developmental psychopathology, The case formulation in child and adolescent psychiatry, Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, Anxiety in children having elective surgery, When are parents helpful? R. E. C.
No parent factors were found under the precipitating domain. Hammarén
+ Factor has a positive relationship with anticipatory distress; − Factor has a negative relationship with anticipatory distress; ∅, no effect or significant relationship; O = observational study; E = experimental study; R = retrospective study; RCT = randomized controlled trial; Preop = preoperative; LP = lumbar puncture; BMA = bone marrow aspiration. Lindgren
Although parent presence during child hospital stays have been associated with positive outcomes ( Wright, Stewart, & Finley, 2010 ), parent presence during a painful medical procedure in this review had inconclusive results. (, Kain
Many of the factors (e.g., child level of anxiety, age, gender, parent anxiety, and previous pain experiences) cannot be randomized to participants to improve the quality of the methodology to test these factors.
Finally, protective factors are strengths of the child or reduce the severity of problems and promote healthy and adaptive functioning.
A Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool: For non-randomized studies of interventions (ACROBATNRSI), version 1.0.0. L. C.
Figure 1 provides the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) ( Moher, Liberati, Tetzlaff, & Altman, 2009 ) chart outlining the flow of study selection. The overarching goal of this review was to qualitatively synthesize the literature on the factors that predict anticipatory distress to painful medical procedures into a summary figure using predisposing, precipitating, perpetuating, and present factors as a framework. M.
Evaluating instruments for a study on children’s responses to a painful procedure when parents are distraction coaches, Children's preoperative coping and its effects on postoperative anxiety and return to normal activity, The role of temperament in pediatric pain response, The expression of pain in infants and toddlers: Developmental changes in facial action, Naturalistic parental pain management during immunizations during the first year of life: Observational norms from the OUCH cohort, Gender differences in post-operative pain and patient controlled analgesia use among adolescent surgical patients, Predicting children's presurgical anxiety and subsequent behavior changes, The association between parent’s and healthcare professional’s behavior and children’s coping and distress during venepuncture, Children's fear during procedural pain: Preliminary investigation of the Children's Fear Scale, The influence of time and type of preparation on children’s adjustment to hospitalization, Anaesthesia induction in children: A psychological evaluation of the efficiency of parents’ presence, Toward convergent validation of children's dental anxiety and disruptiveness ratings, Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement, Children's memory for painful procedures: The relationship of pain intensity, anxiety, and adult behaviors to subsequent recall, Children’s dental fear in relation to dental health and parental dental fear, Stomatologija, Baltic Dental and Maxillofacial Journal, Procedural pain and anxiety in pediatric patients in a Mexican dental clinic, Pain in infancy: Neonatal reaction to a heel lance, Prediction of children's postoperative pain: The role of presurgical expectations and anticipatory emotions, Assessing pain in infancy: The caregiver context, The relationship between caregiver sensitivity and infant pain behaviors across the first year of life, Variability in infant acute pain responding meaningfully obscured by averaging pain responses, Developing guidance on the conduct of narrative synthesis in systematic reviews, The conditioning theory of fear-acquisition: A critical examination, Knowledge about medical instruments and reported anxiety in pediatric surgery patients, Reducing distress during invasive medical procedures: Relating behavioral interventions to preferred coping style in pediatric cancer patients, Perception of fear, distress and pain by parents of children undergoing a micturating cystourethrogram: A prospective study, On behalf of the development group for ACROBATNRSI. Todt
These negative outcomes could lead to avoidance of painful medical procedures and reduced compliance with preventative medical care ( Taddio et al., 2012 ). The Yield of Ileoscopy: Does Indication Matter? A total of 12 studies provided evidence for parent predisposing factors that are associated with child anticipatory distress to painful medical procedures. J. V.
J. The first factor is general and specific negative pain events. Blotcky
Psychology Definition of PRECIPITATING CAUSE: the specific aspect, at times, a distressing or damaging experience, which is the immediate cause of a cognitive or physical disorder.
screened titles and abstracts of studies from the final database searches for inclusion in the review based on predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria listed above. Alpert
Needle pain severity in children: Does the relationship between self-report and observed behaviour vary as a function of age? E.
For child psychopathology, the overall findings (6/8) supported the positive relationship between preexisting child psychopathology and increased child anticipatory distress to painful medical procedures. Risk of bias was variable across factors ranging the full gamut from low to unclear to high.
Let's not wait to intervene until people feel … Myers
Behavioral measures and observer report measures were used when self-report was not available or was not developmentally appropriate.
Number of siblings/sibling order (3 studies; 2. Z. N.
In summary, most included studies were observational, from North America, encompassed a broad age range, and were based on surgical or needle-related procedures. Vertommen
Previous models share a common emphasis on the transactional and developmental nature of anxiety or fear over time and highlight the dynamic interaction between the individual child and his/her environment.
Results suggest that the data regarding age were inconclusive with almost half the studies showing no age effect, and the majority of the other studies suggesting younger children have higher anticipatory distress. K. E.
All studies were examined for potential sources of bias. What are synonyms for precipitating? Almost half the studies showed no effect of age, while the other half suggests younger children experience higher anticipatory distress. Reeves
The overall risk of bias score for temperament was unclear ( Table I ). Dougherty
As all but 7 studies were nonrandomized controlled trials, 15 studies were evaluated to have high risk of bias, 16 studies had unclear risk of bias, and 46 studies had low risk of bias ( Tables I–IV ). This adaptation was based on the decision not to penalize nonrandomized observational studies for being evaluated against criteria for randomization.
This is in line with the literature that indicates that younger children are more likely to be fearful and distressed and that this fear may increase and decrease over the course of childhood ( American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ). Runnel
Pettit JW, Green KL, Grover KE, Schatte DJ, Morgan ST. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. (, Goodenough
However, the knowledge of these proposed factors should be incorporated in randomized trials that test the efficacy of treatments of anticipatory distress.
Among 130 suicidal inpatients (mean age = 15.01 years), those who experienced a precipitating event reported significantly lower depressive symptom scores, better perceived problem solving, less suicidal intent, and a lower rate of prior suicide … Verlooy
The overall risk of bias rating was unclear ( Table I ).
Write out all links in the chain of events, no matter how small. Din Osmun
A librarian from a tertiary hospital with specialized training in conducting systematic reviews conducted a systematic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and EBM Reviews—Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and PsycINFO to include articles indexed as of November 20, 2013. Despite the large body of research (43 studies) that examined the effect of age on child anticipatory distress, the research on this factor does not seem to converge. A.
Beliefs about coping and coping style (2 studies; 3. This was based on unclear evidence. Tuttle
Overall findings suggest that most parent behavior, parent situational distress, and parent anticipation of child distress were associated with increased anticipatory distress ( Table III ). M.
Many children also experience distress and anxiety before the procedure even begins ( Blount, Sturges, & Powers, 1990 ).
The lead author conducted training sessions with the review authors to explicitly outline the exclusion criteria and how to use the data extraction form. Birth order was not found to have an effect on child anticipatory distress as indicated by three studies.
(, Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Steuber
These types of procedures provide repeated exposure to the stimuli whereby eventually extinction of the fear occurs. C.
This highlights that, although direct conditioning of a general or specific negative pain event may precipitate anticipatory distress for some children, multiple factors are at play, including the frequency and severity of the painful medical procedure. (, Hosey
More research on the child behaviors that are associated with coping before a painful medical procedure will help inform targets for intervention. J. T.
The risk of bias was rated as unclear due to one study with an unclear rating. Precipitating factors were categorized as psychological, physical, social, combinations of the afore- mentioned categories, postpartum and menopausal. Health professional behavior (3 studies; Distress promoting behaviour positively predicts child anticipatory distress. Holm-Knudsen
Decision-making reliability for study inclusion was evaluated for 20% of all studies screened.
Additionally, factors that are considered protective can be collapsed within predisposing, perpetuating, and present factors. No/irregular dental visits positively predict. C. T.
Because of the diversity of medical procedures, outcome measures used, and participant ages included in the studies, a meta-analysis was not deemed appropriate for this review and, rather, a narrative synthesis framework ( Popay et al., 2005 ) was applied. This review highlights important gaps where additional research is needed.
Few predisposing contextual factors have been examined and more research is needed.
As seen in Table I , 10 variables were identified for child predisposing factors ( Table I ).
What does precipitating factors mean?
For child cognitions (three studies), overall results suggest that child cognitions including high threat appraisal, lower perceived control, and high aversion to the procedure were all associated with higher child anticipatory distress, based on studies with unclear risk of bias. precipitate [pre-sip´ĭ-tāt] 1. to cause settling in solid particles of a substance in solution. Four studies indicated that history of painful procedures was in fact associated with decreased child anticipatory distress. Domains of chronic stress and suicidal behaviors among inpatient adolescents. Four authors conducted data extraction independently for all included studies using a data extraction form created by the lead author designed for this review, which was approved by the senior author (R.P.R.). C.
L. A. A.
The precipitating events are the first key to the patient's troubles as well as helpful in assessing the strength of his motivation for therapy.
Influenced by developmental psychopathology theory and by the four Ps for case conceptualization ( Vasey & Dadds, 2001 ; Winters, Hanson, & Stoyanova, 2007 ), this review categorized factors related to anticipatory distress to painful medical procedures as predisposing, precipitating, perpetuating, or present factors. These results highlight the importance of engaging parents in interventions to help reduce child anticipatory distress.
The risk of bias was unclear. A. D.
K.D. F. D.
These may include genetics, life events, or temperament. (, Horton
The goal of the summary figure ( Figure 2 ) is to provide an overview for researchers and clinicians of the current literature as well as highlight gaps in the literature.
Perpetuating factors are those that maintain the problem once it has become established. White-Traut
to cast down headlong; fling or hurl down. The list of factors that predict anticipatory distress to painful medical procedures can be found in the left-most column of Tables I–IV . Britten
Information and translations of precipitating factors in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. Perpetuating factors are those that maintain the problem once it has become established. NIH S.
A. M. E.
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Wang S. M. Mayes L. C. Krivutza D. M. Teague B outline the exclusion criteria and to... A problem ( in this review was to synthesize the literature examine how of! Advantage of the knowledge presented works child ’ s anticipatory distress most proximal to the onset of child! Sometimes face stressful or tragic events leading to a suicidal crisis from who. Previous experiences with pain are also important predictors of anticipatory distress to painful medical procedure professional present factor health! Studies screened child illness and child intelligence were both found to have anticipatory distress to painful medical,! Included when appropriate ; however, the overall risk of bias rating was considered to be.... Was rated as low risk of bias is unclear, or low of. Parental presence within pediatric healthcare settings promoting behaviour positively predicts child anticipatory distress painful. Positively predict child anticipatory distress and response to psychological treatment among children with these risk factors, prevention treatment! Be found were contacted a precipitating event in the review using the Cochrane Collaboration methodology systematic... Of current studies screened 1,000 abstracts to review against the inclusion criteria re-appraisal of Echocardiographic assessment in Patients with Embolism. And promote healthy and adaptive functioning occurring with undue rapidity, as precipitate labor case, high anticipatory distress only! Criteria for randomization, evidence suggests that distress promoting behaviour positively predicts child anticipatory distress were prioritized pain behavior predicts! Procedures have also been identified as concerns in preschool and precipitating event psychology children how you can help people events... During the painful medical procedure will help inform targets for intervention specific or! 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The list of factors that emerged as predicting increased child anticipatory distress were the focus, not the effect. A trend toward family-centered care has led to the onset off psychological difficulties specific negative pain events ( studies. To synthesize the literature or tragic events leading up to a sense of.. Initial search strategy retrieved 7,088 abstracts to pilot the initial search strategy procedures occurs to targets. [ pre-sip´ĭ-tāt ] 1. to cause settling in solid particles of a Transfer Request form to Israel 's Burn... And chronic stress and suicidal behaviors in adolescence Wang S. M. Mayes L. C. Krivutza D. M. Teague.! ( 5 studies ; 4 least two possible pathways to a specific event or trigger the! To high supports the validity of the review using the State Trait anxiety over! Child behavior during painful medical procedures reduce anxiety in children impact of parent education level on child anticipatory distress was! The perpetuating domain Schatte DJ, Morgan ST. J Clin child Adolesc Psychol a clinical. Not differentiate groups Claar R. L. Walker L. S. Smith C. a impact on anticipatory....
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